MAGGOT DEBRIDEMENT THERAPY (MDT)
References on MDT and related subjects

By John C. T. Church

®  Indicates that I have a reprint, or photocopy.

®Abram LJ, Froimson AI.    Myiasis (Maggot Infection) as a complication of Fracture Management.  Case Report and Review of the Literature.
(The Journal doesn’t feature on the reprint that Dr. Hall gave me, but there is some information; April 1987 Vol 10/No4, pp 625-627).

®Ahuja A.   Scientists “are losing war on superbugs”.    The Times.  Thursday 28/1/1999, p 7.
Describes the first of a new series of Royal Institution lectures.  ”Bacteria typically evolve resistance to any drug within about four years of its introduction”.

®Alexander E.  Surgical  Maggots. (Letters to the Editor)  South Med. J. 1987;80(10):1333.
1.3.95.  Reprint given to me by Ronald Sherman, Jan.95.  No refs.

®Anderson A.  Personal communication,  13.4.96
“50 years ago ... a working horse with its leg fast in a wire fence ... blow flies were allowed on the wound, for the maggots to breed and eat all the pus etc away.  The horse made a perfect recovery”

®Anderson N.    Skin Crawls - Then Heals.    Los Angeles Times. 21st July 1997
Article sent to me by Dr. Ron Sherman.  Quotes the UK work and the lab. in Wales..

®Anderson Tatum.  Artificial skin, live maggots and ultrasound.  The Financial Times 21.4.98 ?page.  
Has a section entitled: "Natural methods" describing "Maggot Debridement Therapy".  Also has a section on hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

®Andrews AM, Thomas S, Wilson M.   The effect of hydrogels on maggot growth.  Wound Repair and Regeneration.  Sept-October 1998;6(5):A496
Conclusion: Propylene glycol, a stabilising agent in hydrogels, inhibits maggot growth.  Purilon, the only hydrogel tested which does not contain Propylene glycol, did not inhibit growth.  This work was presented in a poster shown at the ETRS meeting in Copenhagen 27-30 May 98.

®Andrews AM, Jones M, Champion A.  Larval therapy and wound management.  Medical Microbiologist, Autumn 1999:18-19    23 refs.

Andrews MLA.  The Life That Lives on Man.  London: Arrow Books 1978; 122
1.7.95  quoted in ®Rowbotham TJ, below.

®Appleby R.  Personal communication.  23.7.95
She saw the second of the Tomorrow”s World programmes.  Her mother was a nurse at an Army Hospital in Evesham during the 1914-1919 War. “Many of the wounded coming straight back from the front with just field dressings on their wounds.. some of the wounds were infested with maggots - but the flesh was clean, and many were saved especially those with bad limb wounds from gangrene”.

®Appleton I.  Wound repair: the role of cytokines and vasoactive mediators.  J Royal Soc Med  Sept. 1994;87:500-502
2.9.94. A good summary of the subject.  21 refs.

®Backman B.  Marvel of Maggots.  New  Scientist. 3 June 1995:50.
27.6.95  Gives two anecdotes; a soldier at Passchendaele, and an injured sailor in Lunenburg, Nova Scotia, healed by maggots.  But quotes surgeons who said, of maggots: “their use was not advised in general practice”.  Has a good cartoon!   See also ®Silcock S. 1995.

Baer  WS.  Viable antisepsis in chronic osteomyelitis.  Proc Interstate Postgrad Med Assem North Am   Oct 1929;5:365-372

Baer  WS.  Sacroiliac Joint;  Arthritis Deformans;  Viable Antiseptic in Chronic Osteomyelitis.  Proc Internat Assembly Inter-state Post-grad  Med  Assn North Am  1930;V:371

®Baer  WS.  The treatment of chronic osteomyelitis with the maggot (larva of the blowfly).  J Bone Joint Surg  1931;13:438-475
No refs, except as footnotes to the text.

®Bailey,Penny.  Wellcome News  Q2 2000  Natures little helpers.  Maggots and wound healing.
This article was written for Wellcome News by Penny Bailey, Corporate Writer (see e-mail correspondence, under p.bailey@wellcome.ac.uk). Wellcome News is published by the Wellcome Trust, giving news of their involvement with scientific research.
“They may look revolting but they do a great job: maggots can work miracles in human wounds.  The hunt is on for the key biological agents”.
This article ends with a “box” section entitled “Wars, wounds and maggots” giving a brief history of larval therapy.

®Bale S.  A guide to wound debridement.  Journal of Wound Care  April 1997;6(4):179-182
pp. 181-182  mentions “Biosurgery”  27 refs.

®Bargoin V.  Des asticots pour traiter les plaies.  Le Quotidien du Medecin, No.5671, 10.7.1995.
Talks of Dr. David Rogers” work, and refers to the paper (below): ®Sherman  RA,  Wyle  F,  Vulpe  M.   Maggot therapy for treating pressure ulcers in spinal cord injury patients.  Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine.  1995;18(2):71-74.    

Bednarikova L, Lejska V.   Living larvae of the fly Lucilia  sericata  in a trepanation cavity after atticoantrotomy.  Cesk Otolaryngol  1977;26:172

®Betts JA, Molan PC.  A pilot trial of honey as a wound dressing has shown the importance of the way that honey is applied to wounds.  2001.  
Poster at the 11th Conference of the European Wound Management Association (EWMA).
Dublin, Ireland 17-19 May 200.  Used Manuka Honey which was efficacious.

Bettsworth, Mrs.  Personal communication (Telephone - 0181 761 4955)
21.7.95  Mrs Bettsworth telephoned, to tell me that her husband was in the Normandy Landings, and was struck by a shell in the Falaise Gap.  He had a severe wound of the right upper arm, and the “artery was severed”, but the limb was saved.  Later, he had a plaster cast on, and maggots appeared under the plaster.  The wounds then healed and never recurred.  He later became a sheet metal worker, and died in 1978.

®Betune N.  A case of chronic thoracic empyema treated with maggots.  Canadian Medical Association Journal  1935;32:301-302
15.6.95.  Photocopy sent to me by Mr. Jim Huntley,
Cambridge.  They used a “test-tube full of maggots” not saying where they got them from.   They used an electric light above the wound, to “drive the maggots into the depths of the wound”.  The maggots seemed to die in the wound, but with good result.  They only quote Baer “31.

Bitting  ND.   Acute osteomyelitis and complications.  South Med J  1921;22:580

®
Bonn Dorothy.  Maggot therapy: an alternative for wound infection.  Lancet 2000.356:1174
This is a review article on Larva Therapy, highlighting Dr. Stephen Thomas” lab, Dr. Sherman’s recent presentation at a wound care conference, and Mr. Mike Walker’s report on cost effectiveness of LT.  No refs.

®Brading MG.  Investigation of the anti-bacterial properties of the excretions of Calliphoridae larvae, and their possible complimentary grazing actions.  
1st Oct. 1990  Exeter University, Dept. of Biological Sciences.

®Brem H, Balledux J, Bloom T, Kerstein M, Hollier L, Falanga V.  Optimal wound bed preparation for the successful use of bioengineered skin in venous ulcers.  Wound Repair and Regeneration  July-August 2000;8(4):323
This is an abstract of a paper read at one of the ETRS conferences. They advocate surgical debridement.  Nil on maggot therapy as a possible alternative debridement method.

®Brown A, Burleigh JM, Billett EE, Pritchard DI.  An initial characterisation of the proteolytic enzymes secreted by the adult stage of the human hookworm.  Parasitology  1995;110:555-563
This paper was sent to me by Prof. David Pritchard.  See other papers on this subject, attached to this paper, in file.

®Brumpt E.   Utilisation des larves de certaines mouches pour le traitement de l”osteomyelite et de diverses affections chirurgicales chroniques.   Ann Parasitol  1933;11:403
5.4.95  Photocopied in the Bibliotheque Interuniversitaire de Medicine, Paris (ref.  BIUM 133803)
67 refs. Dr. Brumpt”s address:  Laboratoire de parasitologie de la Faculte de medicine de Paris.

®Buchman J,  Blair  JE.  Maggots and their use in the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis.   Surg Gynecol Obstet   1932;55:177-190
28.9.94 Copied at the RSM.  17 refs.

®Bunkis J, Gherini S, Walton RL.   Maggot therapy revisited.  West J Med   Apr 1985;142:554-556
They report on a patient, an 88-yr-old woman, with a necrotic facial tumour, who came to hospital with maggots in the ulcer.  They left them in, to good effect.  The wound contained “several blowfly  larvae”, but they did not identify them.  p.556: “maggot therapy  is outstandingly  cost-effective”.

®Burgess I.  Myiasis - The Development of Fly Larvae in Living Organisms.  The Dressing Times  1991;4(No2).
27.9.95  Reprint sent me by Dr. Stephen Thomas.  The Dressing Times is produced by the Surgical Materials Testing  Laboratory (SMLT), Bridgend.  12 refs.

®Carlin G.   Personal communication.  25.1.95
Treated a patient terminally ill with gangrene of the feet, in 1988. He used about 200 “blue bottle” maggots, obtained from a fish tackle shop.  This treatment was “tolerated by the patient, eliminated gangrenous odour, transformed wet gangrene to dry, reduced the dose of opiates, and overall contributed to patient well being.” He included full clinical details.

®Casu RE, Pearson RD, Jarmey JM, Cadogan LC, Riding GA, Tellam RL. Excretory/secretory chymotrypsin from Lucilia cuprina : purification, enzymatic specificity and amino acid sequence deduced from mRNA.  Insect Molecular Biology  1994;3(4):201-211
1.3.95.  Reprint given to me by Martin Hall. 37 refs.

®Casu RE, Jarney JM, Elvin CM, Eisemann
CH.  Isolation of a trypsin-like serine protease gene family from the sheep blowfly Lucinia cuprina.  Insect Molecular Biology.  1994;3(3):159-170

®Casu RE, Eisemann CH, Vuoculo T, Tellam RL.  The major excretory/secretory protease from Lucilia cuprina larvae is also a gut digestive protease.  International Journal for Parasitology.  1996;26(6):623-628

®Casu RE, Eisemann CH, Pearson RD, Riding GA, East I, Donaldson A, Cadogen L, Tellam RL.  Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.  1997; 94(17):8939-8944

Chernin E.   The malariatherapy of neurosyphilis.   J Parasitol  1984;70:611-617

Chernin E.  Surgical maggots. Southern Medical Journal  1986;79 No9:1143-1145
Comments that from 1929-1935 there were about 100 papers on various aspects of maggot therapy, and “many more by 1940”.

®Child FS, Jefferson P, Roberts EF, River P.  The treatment of chronic osteomyelitis with live maggots.  N
York State Journal Med.  1931;31(15):937-943.
28.9.94  RSM library rack 1219c.  4 refs.

®Church JCT.  The Early Management of Open Wounds: shall we use Maggots?  East & Central African Journal of Surgery  1994;2(2):

®Church JCT.  ETRS working party consensus paper on wound debridement.  Surgery  1995;13(10):228c-d

®Church JCT, Sherman R, Cherry G.  The Use of Larvae in the Debridement of Chronic Wounds.  1995.   
Paper read at the 5th Annual Meeting of the ETRS,
Padua. 30th Aug. 1995.
Abstract, and fuller text in file.

®Church JCT.  Blow fly larvae as agents of debridement in chronic infected wounds.  1995.
Paper presented at the 5th European Conference on Advances in Wound Management, 21-24 November 1995.

®Church JCT.  Biosurgery.  Journal of Wound Care  Feb 1996;5(2):51
Editorial.  c.f. Thomas S. Journal of Wound Care  Feb.1996;5(2)(Special Supplement):60-69

®Church JCT.  Nature’s Wound Scavengers.  Paper prepared on
1st May 1996, for general information.  9 refs.

®Church JCT.  Biotherapy in
Africa. 1997
Paper read at the Inauguration Meeting at the Dedication of the New Building of the Regional Dermatology Centre, at the Kilimanjaro Christian Medical College, Moshi, Tanzania, on 17th Jan. 1997

®Church JCT.   Biotherapy in modern medicine.   
Yorkshire Medicine.  The Journal of Medical and Dental Education.  1998;10(2):23-24

®Church JCT.   Larva therapy  in modern wound management.  Directory of Community Nursing  1998; 38-41  

®Church JCT.  Trauma Management in the developing world.  International Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 1996;
6:27-30   15 refs.
p. 30:  "a larva therapy service... has been established in the
UK, with a view to also developing it in tropical countries.."

®Church JCT.   The Traditional Use of Maggots in Wound Healing, and the Development of Larva Therapy (Biosurgery) in Modern Medicine.  Journal of Alternative and Complimentary Medicine. 1996;2(4):525-527

®Church JCT.  The early management of open wounds: shall we use maggots?  East and Central African Journal of Surgery  1996;2(2):9-12.

®Church JCT.  Larva Therapy in Wound Management.  In: Modern Approaches to Wound Management. Contributions to the Convatec Wound Healing forum.  
Vienna, November 1996.  Editor T.J.Ryan.  pp.24-26

®Church JCT.  Biotherapy: The Way Forward. 1998
A paper presented at the 3rd IBS Conference, in
Israel, 24-27 May 1998.  Abstract in hard copy in file.

®Church JCT.   Larva Therapy in the Management of Chronic Wounds.  Geriatric Medicine.   1999;29(3):17-18.

®Church JCT.   Larva Therapy in Modern Wound Care: A Review.   Primary Intention.  The Australian Journal of Wound Management  May 1999; 63-68    
            31 refs.

®Church JCT.  International Biotherapy Society. 1999
IBS Chairman’s Report,  presented at the 4th IBS Conference, 10-11 June 1999, Porthcawl,
S. Wales. Copy in file on this meeting

®Church JCT.  Chairman’s opening remarks. 4th IBS Conference 10-11 June 1999.
Full text in file on this meeting.

®Church JCT.  Larval Therapy ­ an International Perspective.  1999.
Paper presented on
14th June 1999, at the 13th Meeting of the Leg Ulcer Forum, Huntingdon, Cambridge.

®Church JCT.  Biosurgery: Larval Intervention in the Chronic Wound 2000
Paper read at the EWMA Conference in Stockholm, 18-20 May 2000
Abstract published by EWMA, in the Proceedings of this Conference.

®Church JCT.  Biosurgery: Larval Intervention in the Chronic Wound.  2000
Paper read at the 5th IBS Conference in
Wurzburg, 30.6.00.  Abstract published by the IBS.

®Church JCT.  Larval Intervention in the Chronic Wound. 2000
Abstract published in the Abstracts of the Girdlestone Orthopaedic Society Meeting in
Malta, 9-13 July 2000.  Hard copy in the file on this meeting.

®Church JCT. Larva therapy, Past, Present and Future.  2000
Paper read at the 5th IBS Conference, in
Wurzburg, 30.6.00.  Abstract published by the IBS.  Fuller text in the meeting file.

®Cohen J.   Feeding the fish. An unusual treatment. BMJ 2000;320:181 (15th January)
This is the account of Jonnie Cohen’s visit to South India, part of which was with me, when I put him on to the search for “scavenger fish” for cleansing wounds.  He states; “The day may yet come where dermatology departments offer maggot treatment for the drier lesions, and the “biopool" for the wetter ones."

Cole  FR.   The Flies of
Western North America.   California,  University of California Press 1969

®Cook F.  ”I yelled and screamed at God: “You can’t leave me to die”.  Agony of fallen climber in five-day ordeal.  Article in the Mail on
Sunday, August 13 1995.
Blowflies settled on his open wounds, and doctors later told him that the maggots had helped stop the wounds become infected.  Article sent to me by Mr. Robert St. John Boswell.  (8.1.96  Mrs Frances Boswell seen in the Leg Ulcer OP Clinic at the
Churchill Hospital, Oxford).

®Cookson C.  On the alert for cries of pain.  Financial Times  Feb 13-14  1999  p.11
“The human immune system may be picking up cellular distress signals after the brain, our immune defenses are the most complex and least understood system in the body.  Refers to “a German study, last week in the Lancet”...

®Cornwell B.  Novel entitled:  ”Sharpe’s Eagle”, describes Lieutenant Richard Sharpe (the protagonist of a series of novels based around the Napoleonic era), who was wounded in the thigh. “A handful of maggots did more than any army doctor, eating away the diseased tissue to let the healthy flesh close naturally”.  
17.10.95: Cutting supplied by Miss Grace Biffen.

®Courtenay M.  Present Day Experience of Larva therapy in the
UK  1998
A paper presented at the 3rd IBS Conference in
Israel 24-27 May 1998.  Abstract of this paper is in hard copy, in file.

®Courtenay M. Larva Therapy in the
UK.  A review of clinical experiences to date and prospects for the future.  1998
Poster at the ETRS 8th Annual Meeting, in
Copenhagen, 27-30 August 1998.  Summary of this poster presentation published by the ETRS as “Final Programme Abstracts”.

®Courtenay M.  Larva Therapy in the
UK.  A review of clinical experiences to date and prospects for the future. Wound Repair and Regeneration.  Sept-October 1998;6(5):A463.   
240 hospitals; LT mostly used as a “last resort”, also LT effective vs MRSA.

®Courtenay M.   The use of larval therapy in wound management in the
UK.  Journal of Wound Care  1999;8(4):177-179
12 refs.

®Courtenay M.  Larval therapy in the management of wounds: clinical update.  British Journal of Community Nursing  1999;4(6):290-292
24 refs
.
®Courtenay M, Church JCT, Ryan TJ.  Larva Therapy in wound management.  JRSM  Feb. 2000;93(2):72-74
20 refs.

®Courtenay M.  Larva Therapy.  Nursing Times.
April 19th 2001;97(16):38
14 refs.

Cox J.  Personal communication, 17.1.96
He was in the North African campaign in the Second World War, and was wounded in the neck.  In the hospital in
Algiers the wounded soldier next to him had a forearm injury with a Plaster cast.  There were “a lot of maggots under the plaster”, which became stained yellow.  The patient complained of a lot of irritation, and when the plaster was taken off the wounds were “very clean”, and, as far as he recalls (he is now age 74) went on to full healing.

®
Crewe C.  Someone’s got to do it...  The maggot Expert.  The Times Magazine 17th February 2001.
Candida
Crewe describes Dr. Martin Hall’s work. as a Veterinary and Forensic Entomologist at the Natural History Museum.  She does not mention the use of maggots in human medicine, but Martin Hall was a founder member of the International Biotherapy Society, which arose out of Maggot Debridement Therapy (MDT) in 1995.

Crile  G,  Martin  E.  In Clinical Congress of Surgeons of
North America "War Session".   JAMA  1917;69:1538

Daniel M, Srámová H, Zálabská E.   Lucilia sericata (Diptera:Calliphoridae) causing hospital-acquired myiasis of a traumatic wound.   J Hosp Infect  1994;28:149-152
1.7.95 Ref. quoted in ®Rowbotham TJ 1995 (see below).

®Dawe V.  Health service pays high price for skin failure.  Hospital Doctor.  
August 10, 1995.
““Skin failure” is rapidly becoming the NHS’s costliest problem”.

®Dewar GM.  Personal communication, 24.11.95
She has a friend who was “severely wounded during the last war.  He lay in a barn for three days before being taken prisoner, and put in Stalag 9c.  A German doctor said amputate, another one said no and used maggots.  I am very glad to say he kept his arm.  The treatment was applied in a
Belgian Hospital.  What more proof would one want, to be convinced that this treatment works.”

Diddle AW.  Surgical Maggots (Letters to the Editor)  South Med. J. 1987;80(10):1333.
1.3.95.  Reprint given to me by Ronald Sherman, Jan.95.  No refs.

®Dillon RJ.  Antimicrobial agents associated with insects.  In: Natural Antimicrobial Systems and Food Preservation.  Edited by Dillon VM (
University of Reading), and Board RG (University of Bath).  Published by CAB International  1994.  pp.223-254
17.5.95  Reprint given to me by Dr. Martin Hall.  Massive bibliography, 172  refs.

®Dinnage VH.  Personal communication,  14.2.96
Letter written to Mr. Geoff. Watts, Producer of Medicine Now, BBC Radio 4, in response to the programme on Larva Therapy, as transmitted on 13th February.  Letter then sent on to me.  Miss Vera Dinnage (now age 72) was a student nurse at Queen Mary”s Hospital, Carshalton, in the early 1940s.  She saw: “many children suffering terribly with osteomyelitis (pre-antibiotics).  My first encounter with maggots was when I was told to remove a POP from leg of little boy ... out came this writhing mass of fat maggots!  The treatment was effective and widely used, although few people believe me ... society has grown to expect drugs for every cure, we must not exclude what nature offers”.

Dixon OHJ.  The treatment of chronic osteolyelitis and other suppurative infections with live maggots (larva of the blow fly).  1933;27:16-20
23.6.96  A ref. in a letter from Dr. Sherman dated
May 13 1966, spelling out guidelines for patient selection for MDT.

®
Dixon M.  Personal communication, 10.5.95
"A war time true story.  I was in the R.A.F....one of our pilots turns up ... shot in the arm ... what saved is arm was the maggots that ate up the poison ... he recovered to back on ops."

®Dobson R.   There’s a bug in my bandage.   The Independent.  The Tuesday Review. Health  Section    30.3.1999

®Doe PT, Hofman D, Church JCT, Cherry G, Ryan TJ.   Larvae and their use in chronic wounds - Experience in
Oxford   October 1997
This was a paper prepared by Dr. Doe, whilst working in the Dermatology Department, the
Churchill Hospital.  It was incomplete when he left the Department, and was not presented for publication.  It was effectively a report on the first 33 patients treated at Oxford. The result reflects the evolution of events in the Department, from 1997 onwards, and is not a valid reflection of the efficacy of Larva Therapy.
Dr. Doe presented this work in a paper presented at the 3rd IBS Conference, held in
Israel 24-27 May 1998.  An Abstract of his presentation is in hard copy file ®.

Dowding VM.  The formation of the cuticular ridges in the larval pharynx of the blowfly (Calliphora vicina R.-D.). Parasitology. 58(3):683-90, 1968 Aug.
16.8.00  Initial details of this paper given me by Prof. David Molyneux, of the
Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine.  Apparently Dr. Dowding did a PhD on the Feeding behaviour and structure of the foregut of larval Diptera, ?Lucilia

®Duncan JT.    On a Bactericidal Principle present in the Alimentary Canal of Insects and Arachnids.   Parasitol  1926;18:238-252
10.8.94.  7 refs.

Dyson M.    Professor, The Tissue Repair Research Unit,
Med. School, Guy’s Hosp.  Personal communication.
She has a technician from
Jamaica, who told us of “native practitioners who use maggots in wounds, and cover them with a leaf".

Edgar P, Phillips LG, Heggers JP.  Adventitious debridement: myiasis revisited.  AJIC 1995:124
23.6.96.  Ref given in a letter from Dr. Sherman, May 13 1996, on guidelines for patient selection for MDT

®Editorial.     Pharmaceutical Journal, Dec 9. 1995.  Sterile maggots used in wound management.
An account of Dr. Stephen Thomas” work in Bridgend, with good illustrations. No author given, and no refs.

®Editorial.     Maggot treatment burgeons.  The Pharmaceutical Journal  1997;258:583

®Editorial.     Maggots to the rescue.  The Spark.  
Bristol, Bath &the West”s ... four month guide to positive change. No 6  Winter/Spring 1995/96. p.27
Perhaps the earliest published description of Larva Therapy in the
UK.  "Mr. Church started treating people in August...To date he has treated about five people" ...  

®Ehrlich HP.  Debriding wounds the natural way by myiasis.
This essay is an abbreviation of an article written by Joel Grossman,  (see ®Grossman  J. Flies as medical allies. The world & I.  October 1994:187-193, below)

®Ehrlich F.   Maggot heroes.  The Sydney Morning Herald.  
Thursday March 23 2000
In the course of Australian Senate discussions on nursing home patients, maggots were mentioned.  This letter gives details on the positive action of maggots in wounds in debridement, etc.  Professor Frederick Ehrlich,
University of NSW. Kensington, Australia.

®Epstein RH.  How maggots nurse wounds.  Globe and Mail,
Toronto, August 5.1995.
A brief article on the fly cultures in the Entomology Department,
Oxford, Dr. Sherman’s work, and prospects for development of “maggot therapy” in Oxford.

®Epstein RH.   Maggots heal human wounds.
A cutting sent to me (by whom?) from a newspaper, but without any indication which, or when.  There are gross factual errors in this article.  A photograph clearly shows Mr. Paul Embden, but he is named as “David Rogers”. I am misquoted, repeatedly.

®Erdmann  GR,  Bromel  M,  Gassner  G,  Freeman  TP,  Fischer  A.   Antibacterial activity demonstrated by culture filtrates of Proteus mirabilis isolated from Screwworm (Cochliomyia hominivorax) (Diptera:Calliphoridae) larvae.  J Med Entomol  1984;21:159-164
The excreta of various flies, ticks, and other arthropods have been shown to contain bactericidal substances effective against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

®Erdmann  GR.  Khalil  SKW.   Isolation and identification of two antibacterial agents produced by a strain of Proteus mirabilis isolated from larvae of the Screwworm (Cochliomyia hominivorax) (Diptera: Calliphoridae).   J  Med  Entomol  1986;23:208-211
The two bactericidal compounds are:  Phenylacetic acid (PAA), and phenylacetaldehyde (PAL).  These compounds are lipophylic, and their activity is greatest at pH 2.5, ie acidic.  The pH of the larva midgut is 2.9.

®Erzinclioglu Z.  Maggots, Murder and Men.  Memories and reflections of a forensic entomologist.  2000  Harley Books.
pp. 213 - 216  Dr. Erzinclioglu refers to Mr. John Church and “maggot therapy”.


®Erdmann  GR.   Antibacterial action of myiasis-causing flies.   Parasiotology Today  1987;3:214-216

®Evans H.   A treatment of last resort.   Nursing Times  1997;93(23):62-65
This is The Nursing Times article of June 4th 1997, describing the elderly patient with gangrene of the foot, sent home to die, but obtaining pain and odour relief with larva therapy.

Fabre  JH.   The Life of the Fly.   
New York:  Dodd,  Mead and Co.  1920

Fabricius,  Hieronymus.  ab  Aquapendente.   Medicina Practica.  Paris,  Clodoveum  Cottard   1634;IV:651
5.4.95  Found in the Bibliotheque Nationale de Paris; Catalogue No. Td30.90.
No photocopying allowed, but could be photographed if I put in a special request.  I found page 651, but as it is all in Latin I could not be sure that it was relevant.  However, see Brumpt E, 1933. page 404.

®Felsberg HD.  Short Story - “Her Just Reward”. 1977.  A document sent to Dr. David Rogers, from Mr. and Mrs H D Felsberg. Labrador.
The story tells of a fisherman who suffered a laceration of the hand with severe infection, becoming “an angry mass of tissue, a bloated limb, a useless appendage, a very threat to life itself”. An 80 year old widow was allowed to try the: “old way my mother show me” - applying maggots to the wound, with success.

®Ferguson  LK,  McLaughlin  CW.  Maggot therapy.  A rapid method of removing necrotic tissues.   Am  J  Surg   1935;29:72-84

Fine A, Alexander H.  Maggot therapy - technique and clinical application.  J Bone Joint Surg.  1934;16:572-582
quoted in ®Sherman & Levsen (unpublished - 1995).

®Fleischmann W, Russ MK, Moch D.  Chirurgische Wundbehandlung.  Der Chirurg.  1998;69:222-232

®Friis-Møller A, Gottrup F.  The effect of Lucilia Sericata larvae on bacteria and yeast isolated from wounds and the lack of effect of antimicrobials on the larvae.
           A paper presented at:  ”Back to the Future”. The 11th Conference of the European Wound Management Association. 17-19th May 2001 Dublin Ireland. Pseudomonas aeruginosa cultures were apparently unaffected by larvae and the larvae died.  All other wound organisms tested were “totally cleansed”.  No refs.

®Gacheru I.   A Case Report: The Use of Maggots in Wound Treatment.   The Nairobi
Hospital Proceedings  1998;2(4):234-238
This was the patient with necrotising fasciitis, under the care of Mr. Imre Loefler, Consultant Surgeon at the Nairobi Hospital.  Good illustrations. 7 refs.

®Galbraith  JH.  Treatment of chronic osteomyelitis.  Pennsylvania Med J.  1931;34:316-318
28.9.94: Copied, RSM library.  2 refs.  NB. This paper follows the paper by Weil et al,   1931, and the copies are together.

®Galtsoff PS, Lutz FE, Welch PS, Needham JG.   Culture methods for invertebrate animals.  1937.  Dover Publications, Inc,  New York.  pp. 418-427
8.10.94  Photocopy sent me by Dr. Martin Hall.  Subtitle: A compendium prepared cooperatively by American zoologists under the direction of a committee from Section F of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.  Gives good practical details on how to rear maggots for surgical use. 10 refs.

®Gayle S.   Myiasis.  Two Case Reports.  The Military Surgeon (Journal of the Association of Military Surgeons of the United States)  (Jan-June)1933;72:225-227
Note: First case was infested with Chrysomia macellaria , with near disastrous result.  Then four cases described with infestation with  Dermatobia hominis,   with unpleasant noxious, but treatable, result. 6.11.96  I searched The Military Surgeon, in the RSM Library, from 1930-1939, to find only this report on Myiasis.  But see Lewis D. below, in same journal 1936  The Treatment of War Wounds.  

®Goldstein  HI..   Maggots in the treatment of wound and bone infections.   J  Bone  Joint  Surg   1931;13:476-478
This paper contains good quotes from the very early reports of maggots in wounds.

Goldstein  HI   Maggots in the Treatment of Wounds, Compound Fractures and Osteomyelitis.   J  Am  Med  Assn  Jan 24,  1931;96:290
7.6.99  I looked up this ref. in the RSM library. It is a short letter to the Editor; “treatment with maggots is more than 100 years old” ... “I saw maggots used in the old Provincial General Hospital, Madrid, Spain, in August 1929”.  Quotes Larrey and Malgaigne.

®Goldstein  HI.  Live maggots in the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis, tuberculous abscesses, discharging wounds, leg ulcers, and discharging inoperable carcinoma.  Internat Clin  1932;4:269-281
10.8.94. Photocopied at the RSM.  23 refs, including 10 “Biblical” refs.

®Gordon S, Allan T.  Docteur Bethune.  1952  Translated from French by Jean Paré. Editions l’étincelle.
p.59 Dr. Bethune drained a pleural abscess, then treated the wound with maggots.  After the treatment, during which the maggots died, “les écoulements avaient presque disparu, le nombre de streptocoques avaient radicalement diminué et la surface du poumon appparaissait saine”.  Dr. Bethune died, November 13 1939.
See also ref Valois-Bachand, below.

®Gottrup F, Melby BØ, Jensen MH, Müller K, Holstein,P.    Maggot Therapy  especially related to the diabetic foot?  Early results.  
Abstract of a paper presented at the 11th Conference of the European Wound      Management Association. 17-19 May 2001, Dublin, Ireland.
16 patients treated.  Conclusion.  Maggot therapy seems to be a safe and effective treatment of necrosis in the diabetic foot ulcers.  A randomised study is being set up.  No refs.

®Grantham-Hill  C.  Preliminary note on the treatment of infected wounds with the larva of Wohlfartia nuba.   Trans  Roy  Soc  Trop  Med  &  Hyg   1933;27:93

®Grey JE, Harding KG.  The chronic non-healing wound: how to make it better.  Hospital Medicine. July 1998;59(7):557-56323.11.98
28 refs, not yet studied. They quote Thomas S, et al 1996 J Wound Care 5:60-69  Nil on vacuum pump.  Only one small mention of larva therapy: p562: “Other interesting areas of wound healing research include: ... 3. The use of sterile maggots in wound debridement and prevention and control of wound infection (e.g. Thomas et al, 1996)”

®Greenall D.   Personal communication, 13.3.95.  Her father was wounded in the First World War,  and “had maggots in his wounds ... they saved his life”. He died about 10 years ago.

®Greenberg B.  Persistence of bacteria in the developmental stages of the housefly. I. Survival of enteric pathogens in the normal and aseptically reared host.  Am J Tropical Medicine And Hygiene  1959;8:404-411.
11.10.94  Reprint sent me by Professor Greenberg.  11 refs.
12.4.95   N.B. I have 16 papers by this author.

®Greenberg B.  Persistence of bacteria in the developmental stages of the housefly.  II. Quantitative study of the host-contaminant relationship in flies breeding under natural conditions.  Am J Tropical Medicine and Hygiene  1959;8:412-416
11.10.94  Reprint sent me by Professor Greenberg.  6 refs.

®Greenberg B.  Persistence of bacteria in the developmental stages of the housefly.  III. Quantitative distribution in prepupae and pupae.  Am J Tropical Medicine and Hygiene   1959;8:613-617
11.10.94  Reprint sent me by Professor Greenberg.  9 refs.

®Greenberg B.  Persistence of bacteria in the developmental stages of the housefly.  IV. Infectivity of the newly emerged adult.  Am J Tropical Medicine and Hygiene  1959;8:618-622
11.10.94  Reprint sent me by Professor Greenberg.  21 refs.

®Greenberg B.  Host-contaminant biology of muscoid flies:  I. Bacterial survival in the pre-adult stages and adults of four species of blow flies.  J Insect Pathology  1960;2:44-54
11.10.94  Reprint sent me by Professor Greenberg.  6 refs.

®Greenberg B.  Host-contaminant biology of muscoid flies.  II. Bacterial survival in the stable fly, false stable fly, and the little house fly   J Insect Pathology  1962;4:216-223
11.10.94  Reprint sent me by Professor Greenberg.  10 refs.

®Greenberg B.  Host-contaminant biology of muscoid flies.  III. Effect of hibernation, diapause, and larval bactericides on normal flora of blow-fly prepupae.   J Insect Pathology;(Dec)1962;4:415-428
11.10.94  Reprint sent me by Professor Greenberg.  32 refs.

®Greenberg B, Miggiano V.  Host-contaminant biology of muscoid flies.  J Infectious Diseases  1963;112:37-46
11.10.94  Reprint sent me by Professor Greenberg.  10 refs.

®Greenberg B.  Bacterial interactions in gnotobiotic flies.  IX International congress for microbiology.  Symposium D II.  Gnotobiology.   Moscow, 1966. 371-380
11.10.94  Reprint sent me by Professor Greenberg.  4 refs, all his.

®Greenberg B.  Micro-potentiometric pH determinations of muscoid maggot digestive tracts.   Annals of the Entomological Society of America.  1968;61:365-368
11.10.94  Reprint sent me by Professor Greenberg.  7 refs.

®Greenberg B.  Model for destruction of bacteria in the midgut of blow fly maggots. J Medical Entomology  1968;5:31-38
11.10.94  Reprint sent me by Professor Greenberg.  15 refs.

®Greenberg B.  Sterilising Procedures and agents, antibiotics and inhibitors in mass rearing of insects.  Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America   1970;16:31-36
11.10.94  Reprint sent me by Professor Greenberg.  63 refs.  See also Pendola and Greenberg, “75.

®Greenberg  B,  Kowalski  JA,  Klowden  MJ.   Factors affecting the transmission of Salmonella by flies:  Natural resistance to colonisation and bacterial interference.  Infection and Immunity.  Dec.  1970  Vol.2  No6:800-809

®Greenberg B.   Two cases of human myiasis caused by Phaenicia sericata  (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Chicago area hospitals.   J. Med. Entomol.  1984;21:616
11.10.94  Reprint sent me by Professor Greenberg.  No refs.    

®Greenberg B.   Flies as forensic indicators.  J. Med. Entomol.  1991;28:565-577
11.10.94  Reprint sent me by Professor Greenberg.  72 refs.

®Grose TK.  Lucrative leeches.  Time February 22 1999. p.60  Welsh firms are stirring up success with a host of wriggling remedies from medicine’s distant past.
The first two paragraphs of this report are devoted to the SMTL “Biosurgery” lab work in Bridgend.

®Grossman  J.   Medicine:  Maggot Therapy and Mites.  ESA “87 IPM Highlights - Part 5.   IPM  Practitioner  1988;X(8):12

®Grossman  J.   Flies as medical allies.  The world & I.  October 1994:187-193.
21.10.94.  Reprint given to me by Martin Hall. See esp. p. 193.   No refs.

Guicheney P.  Rehabilitation de l”asticot.  Nouvelle Presse Medicale  1980;9:964
1.6.95  quoted in ®Sherman et al, J.Spinal Cord Med.

®Guerrini VH.  Ammonia toxicity and alkalosis in sheep infested by Lucilia cuprina larvae.  Internat. J. for Parasitology  1988;18(1):79-81
1.3.95  Reprint given to me by  Martin Hall.  17 refs.

®Hall  MJR    Screwworm flies as agents of wound myiasis.  World Animal Review  Oct.1991;  8-17
A detailed and well-illustrated article of screwworm myiasis.  NB.  There is a good paper in the same edition of this review (p.36) on the mass-production of larvae.  The principles would apply to “good” larvae as much as to “bad”.

®Hall  MJR,  Smith KGV.   Diptera causing myiasis in man.  Chap.12 in "Medical Insects and Arachnids" by Richard P. Lane and Roger W. Crosskey (Eds);  1993,  Chapman and Hall,  723pp
A good summary of “Maggot Therapy”, and extensive bibliography.  The relevant chapter, in the now published book®,  is chapter 12: Diptera causing myiasis in man, by Hall MJR, Smith KGV; pp. 429-469

®Hall  MJR.  Trapping the flies that cause myiasis: their responses to host-stimuli. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology   1995:89(4);333-357.
24.10.95.  Paper sent to me by Dr. Martin Hall;  about 150 refs.

®Hallett A.   Personal communication, 5.8.95
This is a letter from Miss Hallett, (Senior lecturer/Specialist Advisor Tissue Viability) giving details of a patient who had had a total hip replacement, developed a pressure sore of the heel, and then had maggots in the wound.  23 maggots were removed and sent to me for identification.  They are all 3rd instar larvae of Lucilia sericata.  This is, I think, the first reported such case, of human wound infestation with Lucilia sericata in UK.

®Hamilton Bailey.   Maggot Therapy in Infected Wounds.    Surgery of Modern Warfare Vol 1.  E & S Livingstone 1942.  Chapter XVI   pp. 155 - 160    6 refs.
Excellent account of the breeding of maggots, sterilisation of eggs, and Maggot Therapy.  "Maggots are vouchsafed what is forbidden to the surgeon, for they can remove necrotic tissue without interfering with Nature’s protective barriers.  Furethermore, maggots can crawl into every nook and crany and accomplish what the knife can never do.  Maggot therapy has proved particularly efficacious in soft-tissue infection with extensive laceration and a large amount of necrotic tissue."  They describe pain, bleeding, oedema and pyrexia.  The final section is on: "Possibilities of maggot therapy on a large scale in war wounds."

®Hay D.  What’s eating that patient?  It”s maggots.  The Sydney Morning Herald.  Saturday July 26 1997.  
A cutting sent to me by Mr. Sydney Nade, from Sydney. The article was written by David Hay, “in Los Angeles”.  It states that Dr. Sherman has “shipped batches of the crawly creatures all over the world, including to Canada”.

®Hawkes N.  The smart assasins.   The Times.  Wed.  December 16 1998.   
Describes the work of an Israeli team, headed by Professor Yechiel Shai; short (12 amino-acid peptides) produced by “insects and frogs” .. “attach themselves to the surface membrane of bacteria, and dissolve it”

®Harris JH.   Personal communication.
He refers to a book entitled "Elephant Bill", giving the experiences of an Englishman who lived with a Malay tribe in the jungle, herding elephants.  He injured his leg, and the wound refused to heal.  A tribesman covered the wound with a “poultice of elephant dung in which there were maggots.  In a short time the maggots cleaned all the gangrene from the wound, which healed successfully.”

®Health Service Journal.   17.12.1998        ”Lord of the flies”.  
Photo of Steve Thomas and brief description of the biosurgical research unit at Bridgend, and the granting of the Millenium Product status.

Herms  WB,  Gilbert QO.   An obstinate case of intestinal myiasis.  Ann Intern Med  1933;6:941

Hewitt  JF.   Osteomyelitis, development of the use of maggots in treatment.  Am J Nursing  1932;32:31-38


®Highfield R.   Have maggots heal thyself.  In Science Round-up, Daily Telegraph 23.11.94
Sent to me by Alexandra Erskine, Librarian, Daily Telegraph, 2.8.95.  Describes Dr. Martin Hall’s Natural History Museum” annual report.  This is, I think, the first national press report, on the development of this work in UK.

®Hill A.  Doctors move to employ maggots in NHS.  The Guardian. Sunday 23rd July 2000
This is an article describing the study, in the West Cumberland Hospital, on the cost effectiveness of Larva Therapy.
See also Clairre Phipps, with a similar article in the Guardian Tues. Aug 1st 2000.

®Hobson  RP   Studies in the nutrition of blow-fly larvae I.  Structure and function of the alimentary tract.  J  Exp  Biol  London  1931;8: 109-123
12.4.95  I have 11 papers by this author.  27 refs.

®Hobson  RP.  On an enzyme from blow-fly larvae (Lucilia sericata)  which digests collagen in alkaline solution.   Biochem J Camb  1931;25:1458-1463
12.4.95   7 refs.

®Hobson  RP.  Studies on the nutrition of blow-fly larvae.  II-IV  J Exp Biol Edin  1932;128-138;359-365;366-377
Reprint only on pp. 128-138. 14 refs, not yet studied   (NB  No volume number, but I think it is Vol. 1X.ii).

®Hobson  RP.  Growth of blow-fly larvae on blood and serum.  I.  Response of aseptic larvae to Vitamin B.  Biochem J Camb  1933;27:1899-1909

®Hobson  RP. Sheep blow-fly investigations II.   Substances which induce Lucilia sericata  to oviposit on sheep.  Ann appl Biol  1935;22:294-300

®Hobson  RP.  Growth of blow-fly larvae on blood and serum.  I.   Growth in association with bacteria.   Biochem J Camb  1935;29:1286-1291

®Hobson  RP.   On a fat-soluble growth factor required by blow-fly larvae.  I.  Distribution and properties.  Bioch  J  Camb  1935;29:1292-1296

®Hobson  RP.  (1935.  See under:  Maldwyn Davies W  Hobson  RP)  Sheep blow-fly             investigations.    I.  The relationship of humidity  to blow-fly attack.

®Hobson  RP  Sheep blow-fly investigations  III.  Observations on the chemotropism
of Lucilia  sericata MG.  Ann appl Biol Camb  1936;23:845-851

®Hobson  RP.  Sheep blow-fly investigations  IV.  On the chemistry of the fleece with reference to the susceptibility of sheep to blow-fly attack.   Ann appl  Biol   1936;23:852-861

®Hobson  RP.  Sheep blow-fly investigations VII.   Observations on the development of eggs and oviposition in the sheep blow-fly Lucilia sericata.  Ann  appl  Biol  Camb  1938;25:573-582

®Hoeppli R.  Parasites and Parasitic Infections in Early Medicine and Science. 1959.  University of Malaya Press, Singapore.  Pp. 192-200
This is an extract from a book by this author with this title.  The section is sub-headed “Maggots”, and reviews Chinese and Western Literature, mostly in a negative light.  This material was obtained for me by Dr. John Newton, Institute of Health Sciences, Oxford.

®Hofman D.  Know How.  A guide to wound debridement.  Nursing Times August 7 1996.  This was an information leaflet, sponsored by ConvaTec for the Nursing Times. 4 refs.

®Horn  KL,  Cobb  AH,  Gates  GA.   Maggot therapy for subacute mastoiditis.   Arch Otolaryngol  1976;102:377-379


®Horrobin DF.   Innovation in the pharmaceutical industry.  Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine.  2000;93:341-345
A critical analysis of the present state of the development, flow and efficacy of new drugs.  ”... we simply do not know enough about the real solvent environments of most proteins”.There is “a fundamental failure to understand biological complexity”. “most people with a genome which predisposes them to develop a common disease do not develop that disease...what we do need to know is what are the environmental factors that are protecting us so successfully...”   13 refs.

Horwood J   Personal communication.  11.1.1996
(see Biosurgery Notebook No2, p.150)  She worked with Mr, Binfield, Orthopaedic Surgeon, Hastings, in 1972. A derotation osteotomy patient, with infection, had maggots introduced into the wound, “with great success”. While working in the community, she has had 6-7 patients with maggots in their wounds.  In ons such patient the maggots caused the amputation of a toe, “and the patient did well”.

®Houghton D.   Personal communication.  24.7.1995.
Mrs Houghton is a retired nurse, and worked with Mr. Heanly, in Worthing Hospital, in the 1950s.  There was a patient with an extensive leg ulcer, on which a “blowfly” was allowed to settle, and the area was then bandaged firmly.  This was left in situ until Mr. Heanly “said he thought he would like to see”.  On taking the dressing down Mrs. Houghton was “horrified to see about 1" mound of wriggly maggots - but the wound was perfectly healthy looking”.

®Hunt ME.  Personal communication.  10.5.95.
Mrs. Hunt read an article in The People on 7.5.95 on maggots in wounds.  She writes of her husband”s experiences, fifty years ago.  "He spent nearly eighteen months in hospital with osteomyelitis in his right foot.  At one point the doctors said he must lose his leg. But a German doctor, known as Mr. Lawrence, used this treatment, and I am happy to say my husband still has his foot."

®Huntley JS.   Henry Norman Betune - Surgeon, Humanitarian and Innovator.  Surgery  1999;vi
12/5/99 Copy of this paper sent to me by James Huntley.  (No details of the volume).  He refers to the paper by Betune (see ref. this collection), and quotes widely from it.  He refers to modern developments in Maggot (Larva) Therapy.

®Isitt J.  Research Notes: Flesh Eaters.  Balance  November - December 1998 p.22
This journal is for diabetics; full title: Living with Diabetes. Balance - a lifestyle.
Brief article on the IBS and Larva Therapy, efficacious in “diabetic feet”.

®Jack David.   Combing the oceans for new therapeutic agents.   The Lancet  Sept. 5, 1998:794
Article sent to me by Prof. Terence Ryan.  No refs.

®James J.   Personal communication, 11.3.1995
A friend, Mr. E.P. 30 years before, had an ulcer on his leg.  Maggots, from ?blue bottle flies, got under the dressings, and “after a short time it had healed back to a healthy normal leg”..

James MT,  Harwood  RF.  Herm’s Medical Entomology.  6th Edition.  New York:MacMillan   1969
12.4.95  Title?  Also, where did I find this ref.? - ask Dr. Martin Hall.
7.6.99  I enquired at the RSM; This book is not in the RSM library; “try the British Museum”..

®Jenkins S.  To climb the property ladder, find an artist.  The Times Friday April 6th 2001 page 22.
This is an article by Simon Jenkins describing how the advent of artists into a run down area improves its quality and value.  He compares this with maggots; “They move into run-down neighborhoods and, like therapeutic maggots, borrow into basements and attics ... healing wounds and restoring confidence”.

®Jewett EL.  The use of Unna’s paste in the maggot treatment of osteomyelitis.  J Bone Joint Surg.  1933;15:513-515
28.9.94. copied RSM library.  No refs.

®Johnson S.   Larval therapy in the treatment of wounds: case history.  British Journal of Community Nursing.  1999;4(6)293-295
6 refs.

®Johnson S.  Using larva therapy to debride an ischaemic toe. Nursing Times.  April 19 2001;97(16):39-40
4 refs.

®Job 7:5  Authorised Version.  The Bible “My flesh is clothed with worms and clods of dust, my skin is broken and become loathsome”.

Jones J.   Confederate military prison hospital at Andersonville.  Contributions Relating to the Causation and Prevention of Disease, and to Camp Diseases.   Flint  A  (Ed).  Sanitory Memoirs  (Medical Volume).  US  Sanitary Commission.  New York,  Hurd and Houghton  1867:518-655

®Jones M, Thomas S.  Wound Cleansing - a Therapy Revisited.  Journal of Tissue Viability 1997;7(4):119-121.
4 refs

®Jones M,  Andrews A,  Thomas S   A case history describing the use of sterile larvae (maggots) in a malignant wound.    World Wide Wounds.  The electronic Journal of Wound management practice
3 refs

®Jordan W.  Phenomena, comment and notes.  An article in the Smithsonian Magazine (date?). pp. 26-32.
1994. Copy of this article sent to me by Dr. Sherman.
Adapted from the author’s book entitled “Divorce among the gulls”, published by North Point Press.  The article refers (p.30) to a very small wasp - Bathyplectes curculionis  -  which oviposits inside the larvae.  The wasp larva develops inside the parasitised larva, destroying it.  
NB.  This wasp, or allied species, could be a potential danger to cultures of Lucilia sericata .

®Kaaya  GP.  Assessment of antibiotic potentials of insect antibacterial factors.   Insect  Science and its Application  1989;10(3):341-346

®Kampmeier RH.  Surgical Maggots.  (Letter to the Editor)  Southern Med.J.  1987;80(5):666
Jan.”95.  Given to me by  Ronald Sherman.  Refers to Chernin, 1986 (see ref.  above).
“the use of maggots to the point of their commercial production had gone on for a decade before it was reported in the literature” ...

®Kennaugh J.  Maggots and wound healing.  Biological Sciences Review.  May 1995:26-27
11.5.95  Photocopy given to me by Miss Giemza.  No refs, but I must contact the author, as this is the latest paper on this subject.  There is a good illustration of Baron Larrey, on p.26.

®Kennedy D, Foster P.  Made in Britain: the shape of the future.  The Times. November 3 1998. p.7
"a technique for using sterile maggots of the common greenbottle fly to clean up wounds containing dead or infected tissue, as pioneered by the biosurgical research unit in Bridgend"  Report by Dominic Kennedy and Peter Foster on the new wave of Millenium Products awards.  The Bridgend Research unit received one of these awards.

®Key JA.   Maggot Treatment.  Military Surgical Manuals.  National Research Council  Vol. IV  Orthopaedic Subjects  WB Saunders Co.  1942:273
23.9.97  Obtained at the RCS library, London.
The author states: "I have not used this method", and explains why.

®King AB, Flynn KJ.   Maggot Therapy Revisited: A Case Study.  Dermatology Nursing. April 1991;3(2):100-102.
Description of a patient with stasis ulcers and adventitious maggot infestation.  The wound base “was clean” with “healthy granulation tissue more abundant than it had ever been before”.  8 refs.

®Kirby, J  Happy maggots fight bacteria.   Magazine.  June 1999, p. 92.
A review article on “Maggot Therapy”. Saga is a magazine for the elderly.

®Kirby, J   Creepy Crawly Medicine.  Ancient methods of healing are making a comeback.  Saga Magazine.  September 1999, p.96
“Since our story on biotherapy (June) there has been a massive increase in doctors ordering larval products ... 370 centers ... 7000 treatments ... supplied.”

®Kumar  A,  Sherman  RA,  Gorakshakar  P,  Goldstein  M.  The effects of gram positive and gram negative bacteria on blow-fly growth and development.  1993.
This was a paper read by these authors  at the Annual Meeting of the ESA, Dec. 14  1993  -  paper No. DSP0253

Lades R.  Les extraits de Lucilia sericata  en Therapeutique Resultats Cliniques.  These de Medicine, Legrand Ed., Paris, 1938.
Quoted in Sherman & Levsen (unpublished, 1995)

®Lane  RP,  Crosskey  RW.  (reprint of flysheet).   Medical Insects and Arachnids  1993;  Chapman & Hall
23.9.94   I bought a copy of this book, via Martin Hall. Chapman & Hall (2-6 Boundary Row,  London  SE1 8HN).  see particularly  Chapter 12:  Diptera causing myiasis in man, by Hall MJR, Smith KGV, pp. 429-470

®Larrey,  Barron  DJ.   Observations on Wounds, and their Complications by Erysipelas,  Gangrene and Tetanus, etc.   Translated from the French by EF Rivinus.  Philadelphia, Key, Miekle and Biddle  1832;34   Clinique  Chirurgicale,  Paris (Novembre) 1829;51-52
quoted in Murdoch FF, 1931 (see copy of that paper for the quote).
5.4.95  Photocopied in the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, cataloque No. 8o.Td138.23.  Tome No. 1 of 5.  N.B. Also accompanying this series of five Tomes, there were a number of Planches, of which I saw one example, with excellent clinical drawings, but none of wounds in the sample I saw.
See also the extract (attached to this paper) from a modern Larousse, giving more details of Larrey. Also, I have a photocopy of the magnificent oil painting on the wall of the reading room of the Bibliotheque de l’Academie Nationale de Medicine (16 rue Bonaparte, 75272 Paris), depicting Larrey operating in the battle field.

® Leclercq M.   Utilisation de larves de Dipteres - Maggot Therapy -  en medicine:  historique et actualite.  Bull Annls  Soc. r. belge  Ent.  1990;126:41-50
Leclercq  makes  a  plea  for  coordinated  research between entomologists and doctors to utilise larvae more...   NB:  superb bibliography of 80 refs.

®Lederle  -  Surgical Maggots.   Council of Pharmacy and Chemistry.  New and non-official remedies.     JAMA  1932;98:401

®LeDran HF.   A Treatise, or Reflections, drawn from practice on Gun-shot wounds.  Printed for John Clarke under the Royal Exchange Cornhill.  1743:174-175
31.10.95  Photocopy, sent me by Mr. Chris Khoo.  Translated from the French original.  ”The worms that sometimes generate in wounds, indicate no evil”.  ”They never appear in unkindly suppurations, or gangrenous dispositions, but only in laudable suppurations..”  ”When they grow large they may irritate by their gnawing, which may give the patient very uneasy twitchings”.(!)

®Lee  DJ.   Human myiasis in Australia.  Med J Aust  1968;1:170
12.4.95   22 refs, not yet studied

®Lewis D.   The Treatment of War Wounds.  The Military Surgeon (Journal of the Association of Military Surgeons of the United States)  1936;79:10-12
Pays tribute to Larrey, Napoleon’s Surgeon-general, “who has been called the greatest war surgeon that ever lived”.  Nil however on larvae.

 

®Liebold K, Wollina U, Schmidt W-D, Fassler D.  Biosurgery improves granulation tissue - monitoring by remittance spectroscopy.  Wound Repair and Regeneration. September-October 2000.  A422
“Conclusion: Biosurgery is clinically effective to clean wounds and improve healing ... beside debridement, biosurgery seems to improve oxygen supply within granulation tissue.”

®Lindblad WJ.   How sophisticated do we need to be?   Wound Repair and Regeneration. Sept-Oct. 1999;7(5):329
This is an Editorial, by the Editor-in-Chief of the Wound Rep Reg, the Official Publication of the Wound Healing Society, the European Tissue Repair Society, The Japanese Society for Wound Healing, and The Australian Wound Management Association.   No refs.

®Lindblad WJ.   The more we know, the less we understand?   Wound repair and Regeneration. May - June.  2000;8(3):161
A further editorial by William Lindblad, Editor-in-Chief of this Journal.  ”The one growth factor which we "knew" was central to wound repair may actually not be central at all".  No refs.

®Livingston  SK,  Prince  LH.   The treatment of chronic osteomyelitis (with special reference to the use of the maggot active principle).   JAMA  1932;98:1143-1149
12.4.95   4 refs.

Livingston  SK.   Maggot treatment of osteomyelitis.  J  Amer  Med  Ass   1932;98: 1585

®Livingston  SK.  Maggots in the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis, infected wounds, and compound fractures.   Surg  Gynecol  Obstet  1932;54:702-706

®Livingston  SK.   The therapeutic active principle of maggots.  With a description of its clinical application in 567 cases.   J  Bone  Joint  Surg    Jul  1936;18:751-756

®Loefler IJP.   Microbes, chemotherapy, evolution, and folly.  The Lancet.  Dec 21/28  1996;348:1703-1704
13/4/99  A copy of this essay was given to me by  Professor Douglas Roy.

®Loefler IJP  Managing Chronic Disease.  BMJ.  28July 2001;323:241
“Health for all is unattainable. A disease free world is an illusion”.

®Longmore T.  Gunshot Injuries.  Their history, characteristic features, complications, and general treatment.  London. Longmans Green @ Co.  1877
p. 212-215.  Chapter IV  Invasion of gunshot wounds by maggots.  Generally deprecatory, but quotes Larrey faithfully (in an article of 1812). See also the Indian ref. of 1858, on p.639   

Macalister  CJ.  A new cell proliferant:  Its clinical application in the treatment of ulcers.   BMJ   1912;1:10

Macalister  CJ.   The action of Symphytum Officinale.   BMJ   1912;     :702-703
(?this ref. needs Vol No.)

®McClellan  RH.   Medicolegal use of maggots.   JAMA  1931;96:2226  (no refs).

®McFarlane JM.   Personal communication, 13.9.95
Miss McFarlane quotes having seen an article in the Ottowa Citizen, Monday July 17th !995, on the use of maggots in medicine.  She also states: "as a junior nurse in 1948, at the General Infirmary at Leeds, I witnessed this form of treatment.  The patient had a suppurating wound of the breast - she had sustained a radical mastectomy.  The wound was debrided and cleansed, and as a very junior nurse I was quite impressed".  See also my letter to her of 13.9.95.

®Macias  EG,  Graham  AJ,  Green  M,  Pierce  AW.   Cutaneous myiasis in South
Texas.  N Engl J  Med  1973;289:1239
12.4.95   8 refs.

®McFarlane JM.   Personal communication, August 1995.
She refers to an article in the Ottowa Citizen, Monday July 17, 1995, regarding the use of maggots in medicine.  ”As a junior nurse in 1948, at the General Infirmary at Leeds I witnessed this form of treatment.  The patient had a suppurating wound of L. breast - she had sustained a radical mastectomy.  The wound was debrided and cleaned.  As a junior nurse I was quite impressed”.  See the ensuing correspondence.

®McKeever  DC.  Maggots in treatment of osteomyelitis  - a simple inexpensive method.  JBJS  1933;15:85-93
8 refs

®McLellan  NW.   The maggot treatment of osteomyelitis.   Can  Med  Assoc  J   1932;27:256-260

Maggots Dentists.    Time  Magazine  July 3,  1933:26


®Maggot medicine   Sunday Times 16.1.2000   "Doctors at Manchester Royal Infirmary saved David Eisner’s leg by putting 10 live maggots inside a wound to clean up the infection"

®Maldwyn  Davies  W,  Hobson  RP.   Sheep blow-fly investigations I.   The relationship of humidity to blow-fly attack.   Ann appl  Biol   1935;22:279-293

®Malgaigne  JF.   Treatise of Fractures  (and Luxations),  under the heading of  "Treatment of Complicated Fractures".  Paris  1847,  vol.i, p.271, line 22, concerning maggots.
5.4.95  Photocopied in the Bibliotheque Nationale (catalogue No: 8o.Td80.13), Paris.  No refs.

®Margolis DJ, Lewis VL.   A Literature Assessment of the Use of Miscellaneous Topical Agents, Growth Factore, and Skin Equivalents for the Treatment of Pressure Ulcers.   Dermatologic Surgery  1995;12:145-148
A paper I received at the EWMA Harrogate conference 16-19 Nov.98.  47 refs.

®Maseritz  IH.  Digestion of Bone by Larvae of Phormia regina.  Arch  Surg    1934;28:589-607
53 refs.

®Matthews J.  Personal communication, 15.3.95
In the early 1900s, Mrs. Matthew’s grandfather, who was a furrier, went to China, to be in care of the horses at the Shanghai Horse Bazaar Racecourse. Her father, then ten years old, had a bad fall from a horse, injuring his knee. "The knee was so damaged, the  English Doctor thought the leg would have to be amputated, but when a Chinese surgeon was consulted, he said that he could save the leg with maggots and sun rays.  This was carried out ... with the knee uncovered but covered with maggots.  Although his leg was saved, it remained rigid.  All the same, my father was always agile and had very little trouble or scars on the “stiff” leg... He lived to ninety three.".

®Messer  FC,  McClellan  RH.  Surgical maggots.  A study of their functions in wound healing.   J Lab Clin  Med  1935;20:1219-1226

®Mihill C.     Doctors hail return of maggot cures.  Guardian.  Home News page 7, 4th Dec. 1996.  Describes Mr. Ken Graham”s work, Dundee Royal Infirmary.

®Moosleitners P.  Maden heilen Wunden in zwei Tagen.  P.M. is Peter Moosleitners interessantes Magazin.  24th Nov. 1995. p.30.
30.1.01  This is, I think, the first article to appear in German, in a popular magazine, on the subject of Larva Therapy.  I was interviewed for this article, but I do not recall the name of the interviewer.  I have no English translation yet.

®Morgan D.  Myiasis: The Rise and Fall of Maggot Therapy.  Journal of Tissue Viability   1995(No2):43-51.
27.9.95  Reprint sent me by Dr. Stephen Thomas.  Good summary article.  61 refs, not yet studied.
Author - David Morgan: Director of Pharmaceutical Public Health, Clwyd Health Authority.

®Mulder  JB.  The Medical Marvels of Maggots.  Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association  (JAVMA)  1989;195:1497-1499

®Mumcuoglu KY, Ingber A, Gilead L, Stessmann R, Friedmann R, Schulman H, Bichucher H, Ioffe-Uspensky I, Miller J, Galun R, Raz I.   Maggot Therapy for the Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcers.  Diabetes Care  1998 (Nov);21(1):2030-2031
A paper published in the Letters section of the Journal.. A good description of the work in Israel, focussing on 22 patients with diabetes (27 foot ulcers).  11 refs.

®Mumcuoglu KY, Ingber A, Gilead L, Stessmann J, Friedmann R, Schulman H, Bichucher H, Ioffe-Uspensky I, Miller J, Galun R, Raz I.   Maggot therapy for the treatment of intractable wounds.  International Journal of Dermatology 1999;38:623-627
Describe 25 patients, with 43 wounds, mostly lower limb chronic ulcers.  Complete or significant debridement in 95% of patients.  25 refs.

®Mumcuoglu KY, Miller J, Mumcuoglu M, Friger M, Tarshis M.  Destruction of Bacteria in the Digestive Tract of the Maggot of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliforidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 2001;38(2):161-166.
A study of the fate of labelled e coli in the maggot alimentary tract.  26 refs.

®Mumcuoglu KY.  Clinical applications for Maggots in Wound Care.  Am J clin Dermatol 2001;2(4):219-227  
Review article.  56 refs.

®Murdoch  FF, Smart TL.   A method of producing sterile blowfly larvae for surgical use.   US Naval Med Bull  1931;29:406-417
28.9.94.  Copied RSM library .   (Note: Smart is “Pharmacist’s Mate, First Class, United States Navy”!)

®Murray  I.  Leeches rediscover the taste for life in hospital.   The Times August 5. 1998 p.6  Refers to “ a study published today in Student BMJ”  Describes the Biopharm lab, breeding 30,000 leeches a year, at £10.25 each ...

®Murray  I.   Maggots clean up in wound care.  The Times   Friday March 19th 1999,  p. 13.   Refers to the BMJ publication of our letter;  see Thomas et al, March 20 1999, p. 807

®Myers  J,  Czaja  LM.  The maggot treatment of osteomyelitis.  Illinois Med J  1931;60:124-133

®O”Brian P.   The Yellow Admiral   ”One of the delights of modern literature” - James Teacher, Spectator.  Harper Collins. pages 97-98.   "..how do you introduce your larvae into the wound? ...  Larrey began by simply leaving it open, having first ensured the presence of blow-flies by hanging decayed meat in the ward:" ... "..I have known gangrenous legs that any surgeon would have amputated without a second thought become perfectly clean and perfectly whole after little more than a month"...
This is a novel, but bespeaks the author having access to source material not readily available otherwise.  The surgeon’s name was “Stephen Sherman”!  

®O”Connor G.   Personal communication, 19.7.95
This is a letter to Dr. David Rogers, Department of Entomology, Oxford University, who passed it on to me. “My wife was a patient at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, in 1934.  At that time a fellow patient was being treated with maggots for osteomyelitis”.  Mr O”Connor had heard of Dr. Rogers” “research using maggots for the treatment of infections”, by reading an item in the “local paper in Lancing, Michigan, USA.”

®Oommen T.   Larva therapy.  Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 2000;93:394
This is a letter in response to the paper by Courtenay et al (JRSM  Feb. 2000;93(2):72-74).  In particular, the role of free radicals is addressed, as also the “acceleration in collagen formation”.

Orr  HW.  A new era in the treatment of osteomyelitis and other infections.  Second Detroit Orthopaedic Lecture,  Wayne County Medical Society,  Detroit.  St.  Paul,  Minn,  Bruce  Publishing Co.  1930

®Otranto D.  The immunology of myiasis: parasite survival and host defense strategies.  Trends in Parasitology. April 2001;17 (4):176-182  
2.11.01  This paper was given to me by Martin Hall.  It has 56 references, and a string of Web Sites on the Plasmodium life cycle.

Packard  JF  1859.  Translation of Malgaigne”s  "Treatise on Fractures".  Philadelphia,  J.B.Lippincott Company.  p.221  (bottom)

®Pare,  Ambroise.  Les oevres d”Ambroise Pare  1579;2
Les oevres d”Ambroise Pare 1652;11  A.Lyon;  Pierre Rigaud.   
Translation from the Latin by Theodore Johnson  1678.   London,Clark; X:249: XI:277.  Selections from the Works of Ambroise Pare.  By Singer  1924;218
5.4.95, 16.15 hours.  Photocopied in the Bibliotheque Nationale de Paris.  See also ®Brumpt, 1933 for further details

®Patrick S.  Personal communication, 11.3.95
"When I was nursing at Barts we used them (about six per patient) in the plastic unit at Hill End,...under the plasters of burn patients, ...and on osteomyelitis patients when Mr. Coltart and Mr. Jackson Burrows were the consultants." Also, see my personal correspondence with Mrs. Patrick.
    
®Pavillard  ER,  Wright  EA.  An Antibiotic from Maggots.  Nature  1957;180:916-917

®Pechter  EA,  Sherman  RA.  Maggot therapy:  the surgical metamorphosis.  Plast  Reconstr  Surg  1983;72(4):567-570
A good general summary of the History of maggots in wounds, their mechanism of action,  life cycle,  associated diseases, and other applications.  They conclude: “This review should not be considered an epitaph, however, for the continuing metamorphosis of medical progress may once again result in a role for maggot therapy in the treatment of wounds.”

Pendola S, Greenberg B.   Substrate-specific analysis of proteolytic enzymes in the larval midgut of Calliphora vicina.  Annals of the Entomological Society of America  1975;68:341-345
11.10.94  Reprint sent me by Professor Greenberg.  16 refs, not yet studied.  c.f. the other Greenberg  refs.

®Phipps Claire.  The flesh eaters.  The Guardian. Tuesday August 1st  2000. p,10-11
“The arrival of antibiotics in the 20th century ensured that maggots fell out of favour with doctors.  But today “biosurgery” is making  comeback, says Claire Phipps”.
This article refers to the recent publication from West Cumberland Hospital, by Mike Walker and Mrs. Anne Walker, on the cost effectiveness of Larva Therapy.
See also:  Amelia Hill,  with a similar article in the Guardian,  Sun 23rd July

®Powell J.  Personal communication,  22.3.95.  
Miss Powell is a retired Nursing Officer, who worked in the Chase Farm Hospital in 1944, treating soldiers with war wounds.  The maggots were “plump and white”, the wounds “clean and pink”, and there was “very little unpleasant smell”.

®Prete PE.  Growth effects of Phaenicia sericata  larval extracts on fibroblasts: mechanism for wound healing by maggot therapy.  Life Sciences 1997;60(No 8):505-510
28.1.98   18 refs.

®Price R.   Personal communication,  28.7.95
Mr. Raymond Price was in the Royal Army Vet.Corps attached to the Gurkha Rifles in Malayia, in 1949-50.  He was training dogs for military purposes, and often “suffered quite severe bites”.  Two of these became infested with fly larvae.  The Gurkhas insisted they should be left in, and “both wounds healed quite quickly without infection or serious scarring”.

®Raven G.  Time for some grub?  1997.
Thjs was a report on my presentation, entitled:  "Biotherapy - or the use of maggots and other living things in medicine" (or some such),  at the BAFO Autumn Meeting, 7-9 November 1997, published in the BAFO Spring Newsletter.

®Rayman A., Stansfield G, Woolard T, Mackie A, Rayman G.  Use of larvae in the treatment of the diabetic necrotic foot.   The Diabetic Foot  1998;1(1):7-13
17.11.98 I met Dr. and Mrs Rayman at the EWMSA conference in Harrogate.
15/3/99  Copy of this paper sent to me by Anne Rayman.  15 refs.

®Reames  MK,  Christensen  C,  Luce  EA.   The Use of Maggots in Wound Debridement.   Annals of Plastic Surgery  1988;21(4):388-391
The maggots were in a wound of a patient with a recurrent squamous cell carcinoma.  He came in with the maggots in the wound.  It was clean, with healthy granulation base and no necrotic tissue.  56 maggots were removed.  They were allowed to mature, and were identified as Phormia regina, black blowfly.

®Riley HD.  Surgical  Maggots. (Letters to the Editor)  South Med. J. 1987;80(10):1333.
1.3.95.  Reprint given to me by Ronald Sherman, Jan.”95.  2 refs.

®Road A.   Welcome Back, Little Bloodsucker.  Readers Digest.  March 1995
This article, by freelance journalist Alan Road, is on the comeback of leeches into modern surgical practice, particularly Plastic surgery.  "The leech is a veritable living pharmacy"

®Robinson  W,  Norwood VH.   The role of surgical maggots in the disinfection of osteomyelitis and other infected wounds.   JBJS  1933;15:409-412
N.B.  I have 10 papers by this author

Robinson  W.   The use of blowfly larvae in the treatment of infected wounds.   Ann  Entom  Soc  Am  1933;26:270

®Robinson  W.   Suggestions to facilitate the use of surgical maggots in suppurative infections.  Am J Surg.  1934;25:525-529
28.9.94.  Copied RSM library.   11 refs.

®Robinson  W.  Improved methods in the culture of sterile maggots for surgical use.  J  Lab  Clin  Med  1934;20:77-85
28.9.94. Copied in RSM library.  9 refs.

®Robinson W,  Norwood  VH.  Destruction of pyogenic bacteria in the alimentary tract of surgical maggots implanted in infected wounds.  J  Lab  Clin  Med  1934;19:581
28.9.94 copied at the RSM library.  19 refs.

®Robinson  W.  Stimulation of healing in non-healing wounds by allantoin occurring in maggot secretions and of wide biological distribution.   JBJS  1935;17:267-271

®Robinson  W.  Progress in maggot therapy in the United States and Canada in the treatment of suppurative diseases.  Am J Surg  1935;29:67-71
Has a good bibliography.

Robinson  W.  The healing properties of allantoin and urea  discovered through the use of maggots in human wounds.  Ann  Rep Smithsonian Institution 1937;  Washington  DC,  US Government Printing Office  1938:451-460

®Robinson  W,  Baker  FC.   The enzyme urease and occurrence of ammonia in maggot infected wounds.   J Parasitol  Apr.  1939;25:149-155

Robinson  W.   Ammonium bicarbonate secreted by surgical maggots stimulates healing in purulent wounds.   Am J Surg  Jan  1940;47:111-115

®Rogers L.  Grubby Business.  Readers Digest, July 1995:19
28.6.95.  Copy Readers Digest, sent to me by the Editor-in-chief, Russell Twisk.  Refers to the article in the Sunday Times, by Lois Rogers.  Describes my patient, treated at Wycombe Hospital, and developments at the Churchill Hospital, Oxford.

®Root-Bernstein, Robert, and Michele.  Honey, Mud, Maggots, and other Medical Marvels.  The Science Behind Folk Remedies and Old Wives Tales.  1997 Macmillan
Purchased 23/7/99;  Dr. Sherman and I are referred to, on pp. 28-29.  The Chapter (2) on maggots has 9 refs. There are no illustrations.

®Rowbotham TJ.  Surgical maggots.  J Hosp Infection  1995;29:311-312
1.7.95  Photocopy sent to me by Dr. Bridget Atkins, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford. This is in “Letters to the Editor”, and refers to an earlier article in this Journal, see Daniel et al  1994, above.  6 refs.

®Ryan TJ.  Wound healing in the developing world.  Dermatologic clinics  1993;11 No4:791-800
16.1.96  19 refs, not yet studied (See, for instance, Bewes PC, 1976.)

®Ryan TJ.  Healthy Skin for All.  May 1994.
Document prepared for the International League of Dermatological Societies, ratified by  the International Committee of Dermatology  in Sydney, Australia, May 1994
6 Refs.

®Ryan TJ.   Compounding Facility for Dermatologic Topical Medications: a Prototype for Rural Areas of Developing Countries   International Journal of Dermatology   1996;35(1):63-64
Describes the lab created from a disused container.  2 refs.
(This could be a prototype for similar labs in the Tropics for Larva Therapy).

®Ryan TJ.  The benefit of maggot debridement in the 1990s.  In: Scars and Stripes.  The Newsletter of the Wound Healing Society.  Autumn 1997 Vol.7, No1. pp.11-12

®St.John Boswell R.   Personal communication, 25.7.95
He refers to a documentary on a true story  of a young woman doctor working in America in the 1920”s.   She was in a remote forest region, and had a child aged 5-10 years with an “abscess in the ear”.  A couple of maggots were placed in the ear, and blocked in with something that they would “eventually eat through”.  The end result was that “the child got better and the hearing was not affected”.

®Serralta V, Harrison-Balestra C, Cazzaniga AL, Davis SC, Mertz PM.  Lifestyles of bacteria in wounds: presence of biofilms?  Wound repair and regeneration.  March-April 2001;9(2):167
14 partial thickness wounds made in two pigs, challenged with Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  Congo red stains biofilm. “This preliminary work has demonstrated that bacterial biofilms do form in wounds”. This paper was presented at the 11th Annual Meeting and Educational Symposium of the Wound Healing Society, held in Alberquerwue, New Mexico  16 - 18 May 2001.  No refs
This is the first paper I have seen which specifically looks for biofilm in wounds, albeit still only experimentally, in pigs.

®Sherman RA .   Maggot therapy for venous stasis ulcers.  The cutting edge
Reprint faxed to me from the Dermatology Dept, Churchill Hosp, 21.3.96. It describes one of the patients whose photos Dr. Sherman sent me as transparencies.
5.3.99  Fax printout now so faded it is virtually unreadable.  I could however obtain further details direct from Dr. Sherman.

Sherman RA .  (Medical Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Long Beach, USA.)  What physicians should know about Africanized honeybees. [Review]  Western Journal of Medicine. Dec. 1995;163(6):541-6,
75 refs
 
®Sherman  RA,  Pechter  EA.  Maggot therapy: a review of the therapeutic applications of fly larvae in human medicine, especially for treating osteomyelitis.   Medical and Veterinary Entomology  1988;2:225-230
“the larvae of some Diptera ... have been employed for maggot therapy,  i.e. to help  clean  lesions antiseptically, especially for the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis.  This mode of treatment remains appropriate for cases where antibiotics are ineffective and surgery impracticable”. A reprint of this paper was first sent to me by Dr. Sherman in October 1988 (see correspondence).  
48 refs.

Sherman RA, Wyle F, Vulpe M, Wishnow R, Iturrino J, Watson M, Martin G.   Maggot debridement therapy for treating pressure sores.  J Am Paraplegia Soc  1990;14:200
Quoted by ®Sherman & Levsen (unpublished - 1995)

®Sherman  RA,  Wyle  F,  Vulpe  M,  Levson  L,  Castillo  L.   The Utility of Maggot Therapy for Treating Pressure sores.  J. of the American Paraplegic Soc.  1993;16:269
They describe the treatment of 70 chronic wounds with MT, with better results than “conventional therapy”.

®Sherman RA, Wyle F, Vulpe M, Levsen L, Castillo L.  The utility of maggot therapy for treating chronic wounds.   Am J Trop Med & Hyg.  1993;49 Suppl.3:266
No refs.

®Sherman  RA,  Luu  J,  Goldstein  M,  Wyle  FA,  Thrupp  L.   Effects of seven antibiotics on the growth and development of Phaenicia sericata  (Meigen)(Diptera:Calliphoridae).
A paper read at the Annual Meeting of the ESA,  Dec.14  1993  -  paper No.  DSP0697. See Sherman, Wyle and Thrupp, 1995, on the same subject, below.

®Sherman  RA, Levson L.  A new pressure ulcer dressing for use with maggot therapy.
1.3.95   Submitted for publication, 1994. 16 refs.

®Sherman  RA, Tran J M-T.   A simple, sterile food source for rearing Lucilia sericata  (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae.
1.3.95.  Submitted for publication in Med. Vet. Entom, 1994.  38 refs.

®Sherman  RA.  Low cost, low maintenance rearing of Phaenicia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in hospitals or schools.
1.3.95. Manuscript given to me by  Ron Sherman in January.  21 refs.

®Sherman  RA,  Wyle  F,  Vulpe  M.   Maggot therapy for treating pressure ulcers in spinal cord injury patients.  Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine.  1995;18(2):71-74.
1.6.95  Sent to me by Mr Roger Bodley, Consultant Radiologist and Clinical Tutor, Stoke Mandeville Hospital.  18 refs, not yet fully studied.  Only 8 patients studied, but results are good; wound contraction rates are faster than conventional treatment methods, with no complications.
19/3/99  This was a letter which we wrote to the BMJ, in response to a number of articles in the BMJ of September 5 1998, and in particular an editorial by Wise et al on antimicrobial resistance.  There was a press release today, which generated articles in The Times, The Telegraph and the Western Mail.

®Sherman  RA,  Wyle  FA, Thrupp L.  Effects of seven antibiotics on the growth and development of Phaenicia sericata  (Diptera: Calliforidae) larvae.  1995; 32(5):646-649.
24.10.95. 19 refs, not yet studied.  Summary: these antibiotics had no adverse effects, even in high concentration, apart from Gentamycin in high concentration.

®Sherman  RA,  Wyle  FA   Low  cost, low  maintenance rearing of maggots in hospital, clinics and schools.  American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene.   Jan. 1996;54(1):38-41
4.3.99  I only have the abstract obtained on Medline library search.  They describe their “hospital-based insectary”,  with “simple, low-cost unobtrusive strategies for rearing blow flies”..

®Sherman  RA.  Guidelines for Patient Selection.  3rd June 1996   Document prepared by Dr. Sherman for the International Biotherapy Society (IBS).  15 refs.

Sherman RA, Tran J, Sullivan R.  Maggot therapy for treating venous stasis ulcers.  Arch Dermatol. 1966;132:254-256
23.6.96  Ref. given in a letter from Dr. Sherman of May 13 1966, giving guidelines for MDT.

®Sherman R,  Hall M,  Thomas S.   Medicinal Maggots: An Ancient Remedy for some Modern Afflictions.  Annual Review of Entomology.  (In Press.]
11/3/99  This is a chapter in this Annual Review.  The draft text was sent to me by Dr. Sherman. on 24/2/99

®Sherman  RA.  Maggot Debridement Therapy for treating non-healing wounds.  Wound Repair and Regeneration.  July - August 2000;8(4):327
Abstract of a paper read by Dr. Sherman at the Tenth Annual Meeting of the Wound Healing Society,  in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, June 4-6, 2000.  This abstract was initially given to me by Dr. George Cherry, on 21st June 2000.

®Sherman  RA.  Maggot Therapy - The Last Five Years.  European Tissue repair Bulletin  2000;7(3):97-98.
A good summary article. 16 refs.

®Silcock S.  Marvel of Maggots.  New Scientist, 3 June 1995:50
27.6.95  Letter in reply to an earlier article, in the New Scientist, of 13.5.95.  Refers to an earlier article in New Scientist, in 1987 (Science, 6 August), and refers to the ETRS meeting in Oxford in January 1995, addressed by Dr. Ronald Sherman.  First published use of the term "bio-surgery". See also ®Backman B. 1995, above.

®Simmons  SW.   Sterilisation of blowfly eggs in the culture of surgical maggots for use in the treatment of pyogenic infections.   Am J  Surg  July 1934;25:140-147
18 refs.

Simmons  SW.   Stimulation of healing in nonhealing wounds by allantoin occurring in maggot secretions and of wide biological distribution.   JBJS  Apr  1935;17:267-271

®Simmons  SW.   A bactericidal principle in excretions of surgical maggots which destroys important etiological agents of pyogenic infections.   J  Bacteriol  1935;30:253-267

Simmons  SW.  The bactericidal properties of excretions of the maggot of Lucilia
sericata.  Bull Entomol  Res  1935;26:559

Simmons  SW.   The Culture of Fly Larvae for use in Maggot Therapy.   Ph.D Thesis.  Iowa 1938   Iowa State College.

®Slocum  MA,  McClellan  RH,  Messer  FC.  Investigation into the modes of action of blow fly maggots in the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis   Penn Med J  May 1933;36:570-573
10.8.94. No refs.

®Stewart  MA.  A new treatment of osteomyelitis.   Surg  Gynecol  Obstet   Feb  1934;58:155-165
Quoted in Bunkis et al (1985):  ”Stewart defined the ideal lesion to treat with maggot therapy: a shallow wound with a relatively large amount of necrotic tissue”.

®Stewart  MA.   The role of Lucilia  sericata   Meig.  larvae in osteomyelitis wounds.   Ann Trop  Med  1934;28:445-460

®Stoddard SR, Sherman RM, Mason BE, Pelsang DJ.   Maggot Debridement Therapy.  An  Alternative Treament of Nonhealing Ulcers.  Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association   April 1995;85(4):218-221.
11 refs.
Description of a patient with bilat. chronic ulcers under the first metatarsal heads.  One foot treated conventionally, the other with larvae.  This healed slowly while the other remained unhealed.

®Surgical Maggots-Lederle.   JAMA  1932;98:401
Note on the marketing of maggots by Lederle for use in chronic osteomyelitis and other suppurative infections

®Tantawi TI, Greenberg B.  The effect of killing and preservative solutions on estimates of maggot age in forensic cases.  Journal of Forensic Sciences JFSCA 1993(May);38(3):702-707
Abstract: Length of the oldest maggots recovered from a body often provide an accurate estimate of the time since death. Different preservatives shrink the maggots at different rates.

®Teich  S,  Myers  RAM.   Maggot therapy for severe skin infections.   Southern Med J   1986;79:1153-1155
They treated two patients, with good result, though one died for other reasons.  They stress that repeated surgical debridement leads to marked blood loss (2-5 units per debridement), whereas maggot therapy “removes necrotic tissue with minimal blood loss”.  They  conclude: “benefit from the reduced cost”.

The Times.  Friday August 25th 2000, page 5  Canine cunning helps drugs fight.
The author is “A Correspondent”.  This is a description of a dog with a “nose for money”. Bodie, the dog, “recognises All major currencies.  Excerpt cut out of The Times, in “Sniffer Dog” follder.

Thomas S, Jones M, Shutler S, Andrews A.  Making friends with maggots.  Nursing Times 1996;92:76-82
4/10/99  Quoted in Dr. Mumcuoglu’s paper in Int. J of Dermatol. 1999;38:623-627

®Thomas S, Jones M, Shutler S, Jones S    Using larvae in modern wound management.  Journal of Wound Care (Special Supplement) Feb.1996;5(2):60-69
14 refs.

®Thomas S.    The First World Conference on Biosurgery   The Journal of alternative and complementary medicine.  1996;2(4):529
no refs.

®Thomas S, Jones M, Andrews A    The use of fly  larvae in the treatment of wounds.  Nursing Standard.  1997;12(12):54-59
29 refs

®Thomas S.  A wriggling remedy.   Chemistry & Industry  7 Sept. 1998;17:680-683
5.9.98  A general article on Larva Therapy, with mention of the IBS, and refs to the study of the larval enzymes.
28 refs.

®Thomas S, Andrews A, Jones M.  The use of larval therapy in wound management. An update and detailed guide on the use of sterile larvae in chronic or infected wounds.  Journal of Wound Care Nov. 1998;7(10):521-524
27 refs.  good well illustrated central section on application of larvae to a wound, and dressing techniques.

®Thomas S, Andrews A, Jones M, Church J.    Maggots are useful in treating infected or necrotic wounds.   BMJ  1999;318:807-808

®Topham J. Sugar for wounds. Journal of Tissue Viability  2000;10(3):86-89
“Suger ... is a non-toxic treatment for a variety of wounds”.
29.8.00  Ref. sent to me by Professor Terence Ryan.  53 refs

Townsend  CHT.    Manual of Myiology.  Sao Paulo,  Brazil:  Charles Townsend and Filhos  1934

Truelove A.   How leeches and maggots head our wounds by means of healthy eating.   Oxeye March 1996 pp. 8-9
"maggots are impeccable microsurgeons.."

®deV,Dr.E.  Plaies chroniques infectées ou nécrosées: la biochirurgie par des adticots.  Le Quotidien du Médecin. No. 6460 du 22/03/99, page 15
This is a commentary on the letter in the BMJ (Thomas S, Andrews A, Jones M, Church J.    Maggots are useful in treating infected or necrotic wounds.   BMJ  1999;318:807-808) in this French  Medical Journal.  No refs.

®Valois-Bachand F.  Personal Communication August 2001.
Age 8, she was hospitalised in the Sainte-Justine paediatric Hospital, Montreal, with acute osteomyelitis of the left femur.  After 3-4 months of “conventional” treatment (pre-antibiotics) she was treated with “worms” Š “I am convinced this treatment saved my leg”.
See also ref. Gordon S. above .

®Vistnes  LM,  Lee R,  Ksander  GA.   Proteolytic activity of blowfly larvae secretions in experimental burns.   Surgery  Nov  1981;90:835-841.
The only study I know of so far (16th July 1994) where the effects of  maggots have been studied in experimental wounds.

Wainwright  M.    Maggot therapy  -  a backwater in the fight against bacterial infection.   Pharmacy in History  1988;30:36-48
1.7.95.  This paper is quoted in ®Rowbotham TJ  1995, as Pharmacy in History 1988;30:19-26, not 36-48.

®Wainwright  M.   Biological control of microbial infections and cancer in humans:historical use to future potential.  Biocontrol Science and Technology  1994;4:123-131
15.2.95  Reprint given to me by Martin Hall. 54 refs.

®Waldvogel  FA,  Vasey  H.   Osteomyelitis:  The Past Decade.   New
Eng  J  Med  1980;303:360-370

Walker M.  10.3.99  Personal communication.
Mike Walker has done a pilot study, twelve patients, on the cost effectiveness of Larva Therapy.  He is currently writing up the results, but tells me that in the LT group costs were reduced by 50%...

®Wall R, French NP, Morgan KL.  Sheep blowfly population control: development of a simulation model and analysis of management strategies.  Journal of Applied Ecology  1993;30:743-751
4.11.94 Reprint given to me by Dr. Richard Wall (senior author). Concludes that "early -season, prophylactic treatment (of sheep) "will give season long reductions in the fly population", and therefore blow fly strike, and minimum insecticide use.

®Wallace AS.  Medicine as it used to be.  Salisbury Medical Bulletin. Jan 1996: 738-739
Describes an episode, as a house surgeon, when a patient was dying of an infected bomb fragment wound of the thigh.  He and the surgical registrar raided the hospital kitchens, found some maggots, and placed them in the wound.  Four days later they “picked out the collection of fat comatose maggots about to pupate”, leaving “a large wound clear of pus and lined with pink healthy granulation tissue”.
Also: ®Personal communication, to Mr. Geoff Watts, Producer of Medicine Now, BBC Radio 4, following the programme of 13th February 1996, on Larva Therapy.  

®Walterspiel  JN,  Schad  GA,  Buchanan  GR.    Direct transfer of adult hookworms  (Ankylostoma duodenale)  from dog to child for therapeutic purposes.   J  Parasitol  1984;70:217-219

®Warwick, Christopher.  ”I am so tired of being in pain”.  The Mail on Sunday. Jan 7.2001. p.25
This is an article for “The Mail” by Christopher Warwick, the author of a biography on Princess Margaret entitled ”Princes Margaret, A Life of Contrasts”, published by Andre Deutsch.  The relevant quote from “The Mail” is:  ”Sitting up in her canopied bed at Kensington Palace, a cradle over her feet on which maggots had been applied as an age old remedy, the Princess received her friends”.

®Waters J.   The benefits of larval therapy in wound care. Nursing Times Jan. 14  1998;94(2):62-63
The illustrations are good but were reversed in printing - see the dates on the photos!

®Watkins A.  It’s a dirty job, but somebody’s got to do it.  The Western Mail  ?Friday 19/3/99
Subtitle: Health: It’s enough to make you squirm, but maggots play vital role in healing infected wounds.  Has a photo of Andrea, and describes an interview with her.

®Wayman J, Nirojogi V, Walker A, Sowinski A, Walker MA.  The cost effectiveness of larval therapy in venous ulcers.  Journal of Tissue Viability 2000;10(3):91-94.
“This study confirms both the clinical efficacy and cost effectiveness of larval therapy in the treatment of sloughy venous ulcers”.
29.8.00  Ref. sent to me by Professor Terence Ryan. 5 refs.

®Weil GC,  Nettrour S, Rohm R.  Treatment of acute haematogenous osteomyelitis with especial reference to the use of maggots.  Pennsylvania Med J.  1931;34:313-316
No refs.

®Weil  GC,  Simon  RJ,  Sweadner  WR.   A biological, bacteriological, and clinical study of larval or maggot therapy in the treatment of acute and chronic pyogenic infections.   Am J Surg  1933;19:36-48
p. 47  They describe the action of larvae in open tumours, reducing infection and tumour mass.

®Wilcox NFM.  Personal communication, 15.2.96
Letter written to Mr. Geoff Watts, Producer of Medicine Now, BBC Radio 4, programme transmitted on 13th Feb.1996.  Miss Wilcox (SRN) is now 85 years of age.  ”Nursing before antibiotics, as a staff nurse, I saw wounds where continuous care was not possible; war conditions.  These included many compound fractures where suppuration penetrated the plaster casts - the odour indescribable.  When the wounds were exposed it was apparent that these worms were a great aid to cleansing and promoting healing tissue.  This technique was particularly adopted for chronic osteomyelitis and other chronic infections, with astounding results.  The patients often found this difficult to accept and the odour presented a problem”.

®Wilson  EH,  Doan  CA,  Miller  DF.   The Baer maggot treatment of osteomyelitis.  Preliminary report of twenty-six cases.   JAMA  1932;98:1149-1152

®Wilson VL.   Personal communication, 26.7.95
“Fly eggs were implanted on infected wounds, which were then enclosed with a light covering of P.O.P.  My two abiding memories are how clean the tissues appeared after the maggots were cleared, and the appalling stench on the ward.”(!)  This was apparently during World War 2.

®Wolff H, Hansson C.   Larvae Therapy in a patient with leg ulcers and MRSA (Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus).  Wound Repair and Regeneration.  Sept-October 1998;6(5):A484
They describe a patient in whom an ulcer initially growing MRSA was cleared of it following larva therapy.  They presented this work with a poster at the ETRS meeting in Copenhagen 27-30 May 1998.

®Wolff H, Hansson C. Larval Therapy for a Leg Ulcer with Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.   Acta Derm Venereol  1999;79:320-321
13/9/99  12 refs.  Copy received from Dr. Hélène Wolff.  This is the same patient described in the earlier paper in Wound Repair and Regenerationabove).

®Wood SA.   Personal communication, 4.8.95
Describes two patients: “a child with a severe laceration of leg...in hospital for over a month”.  The wound became “ massively infested with “maggots”... but they vanished overnight.  The other patient had a varicose ulcer, with “maggots” which dropped out... when the dressing was undone”.

®Xiaobing F, Huiming T, Chihyong S, Yinqui L.  Special spectacles facilitating debridement: a report of their use in 300 cases.  Injury:The British Journal of Accident Surgery  1992;23:
21.10.94  Reprint given to me by  Prof. Terence Ryan.  The authors use glasses filtering light of a certain wavelength to allow the surgeon to more readily distinguish between viable and non-viable tissue.  This would be a most useful adjunct for studies where we need to assess clinically the demarcation line, and then see how larvae respond to this line.

Zacharias John Forney  (Obituary)   JAMA  1904;43:748

®Zachmann  JC.     Inaugural Dissertation. Title:  Vermicularis in Vulnere cum Ossis Fractura.  Dissertationis inauguralis.  Chirurgico - Medicinae.  Ad D  XII Septembr.  Anni  MDCCIV    Basileae  1704
5.4.95  Found in the Bibliotheque Nationale de Paris, in a Tome:  THESES de MEDICINE ETRANGER 44. 1-2.  This is a leather bound volume, containing varied documents.  After page 39, is the thesis by JOHANNES  CONRADUS  ZACHMANN, Durlaco-Badensis.  This is 28 pages, all in Latin, measuring about 7 inches by 5 inches.  It was printed in Basle.

®Zachmann  JC.  N.B. I obtained more details on Zachmann in the Bibliotheque de l”Academie Nationale de Medicine in Paris, in a Catalogue General de la Bibliotheque Nationale, Tome CCXXIX.
I also obtained some details, from the Bibliotheque Interuniversitaire de Paris, on where other copies of this document might be found. See the attached note on this reprint.

®Zambellas R.  Personal communication, Jan.1995.
"when I worked in the children’s wards in Groote Scheur Hospital in Cape Town, in about 1950 ... the burns were covered in dressings and crepe bandages ... flies were attracted to the smell ... and laid eggs ... so we had maggots on the wounds.  We left them a short while to eat the sloughed tissue, but once it started to hurt we had to clear them, to protect the granulating tissue. ...They also caused horrible itching.  We put the patients into a saline bath and soaked off the dressings .. the maggots floated.." See also my correspondence with Mrs. Zambellas.

®Ziffren  SE,  Heist  HE,  May  SC,  Womack  NA.   The secretion of collagenases by maggots and its implication.   Ann Surg  1953;138:932-934

Zumpt  F.   Myiasis in Man and Animals in the Old World.   London:  Butterworths  1965

Published material I have obtained without known, or specific, authorship:

®Maggots. photocopy of page 509 in the Index Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon-General”s Office, United States Army. Vol VIII.  Legier-Medecine (Naval) Washington Government Printing Office 1887.
6.4.95. Found in: la Bibliotheque de l”Academie Nationale de Medecine.  Contains a good list of references pre-1887.


Updated, 6th November  2001